Liver — This dark brown organ dominates the upper abdomen. The falciform ligament, a ventral peritoneal membrane attaches the liver to the diaphragm and to the ventral body wall. The coronary ligament attaches the dorsal portion of the liver to the central tendon of the diaphragm.
The falciform ligament lies in a cleft of the liver which divides it into right and left halves. Five lobes can be differentiated. The four principal lobes may be seen from the ventral aspect, they are the right lateral, right central, left central and left lateral. A very small lobe, the caudate lobe, may be seen when the intestinal coils are moved to the left. It is attached to the posterior surface of the right lateral lobe.
Gall Bladder — Lift the right central lobe of the liver and expose the gall bladder embedded within a depression in its dorsal surface. This sac-like structure stores bile secreted by the liver and releases it into the duodenum. Bile is transported by the cystic duct from the gall bladder. It is joined by the hepatic duct from the liver to form the common bile duct which enters the duodenum.